Identify the landscapes and climates of Canada.
Describe Canada's economic resources, activities, and challenges.
Discuss the history and cultural heritage of the Canadian people.

     Chapter Overview

Chapter 5: Canada

Canada, the world's second-largest country in land area, is divided into ten provinces and three territories. The newest territory, Nunavut, was created in 1999. It is the homeland of the Inuit, a Native American people. Geographers divide Canada into six physical regions. Most of Canada has a cool or cold climate.

Manufacturing, farming, and service industries are Canada's major economic activities. Like the United States, Canada has a strong, free market economy. Economic challenges include settling regional differences, working out Canada's relationship with the United States, and solving environmental problems.

Native Americans and the Inuit were the first Canadians. French and British settlers later built homes in Canada. It was a colony of Great Britain until the Dominion of Canada was established in 1867. Canada's government is a parliamentary democracy, headed by a prime minister. Its culture reflects the country's diverse ethnic heritage. Some people in French-speaking Quebec want independence from the rest of Canada.

     Quick Notes

The Land

Canada covers most of the northern part of North America.
Canada has a variety of landforms, including mountains, lowlands, prairies, and Arctic wilderness.
Most of Canada has a cool or cold climate. Milder temperatures are found in the southern part of the country.

The Economy

Canada has one of the world's most developed economies. It is rich in natural resources, farmland, and skilled workers.
Workers in Canada's cities fill jobs in banking, communication, and other service industries. Rural Canadians mostly grow grain crops and raise livestock.
Canada faces three major challenges: holding its separate regions together, working out its trade relationship with the United States, and dealing with environmental issues.

The People

Native Americans and Inuit were the first Canadians. Europeans, mainly British and French, later settled Canadian lands and founded the modern country of Canada.
Cultural differences exist between French-speaking Quebec and the rest of Canada, which is largely English-speaking.
Canada today is a multicultural country with many different peoples from throughout the world.
Many people in Quebec want freedom for their province. In 1995 voters there narrowly defeated a proposal for independence.

Hokanson's Social Studies

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