Plan of Study
Explain the importance of
the Nile River to Egypt's people and analyze the environmental impact of
the Aswan High Dam.
Examine ways of life in North Africa
Chapter 17: North Africa
The most important feature of North Africa is the Sahara. Egypt lies in
Africa's northeast corner. The Nile River, which supplies 85 percent of
the country's water, is Egypt's lifeline. Most of the people live along
the river or in its delta. About 40 percent of Egypt's people are farmers.
Egypt's industry has grown in recent years. Ancient Egyptians developed
a complex civilization and built some of the world's best known structures:
the Pyramids. Today's Egyptians are part of the Arab culture region that
stretches across North Africa and into Southwest Asia.
The other countries of North Africa are Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco.
The landscape of these countries is mostly desert and mountains. Libya,
Tunisia, and Algeria all border the Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has coasts
on both the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean. Oil, natural gas, and
phosphates are important resources in these countries.
The Libyan Desert covers two-thirds of Egypt's land area.
The Aswan High Dam holds back the Nile's floodwater. The dam provides hydroelectric
power to Egypt's growing industries.
Most of Egypt's people live near the Nile River and depend on it for water
About 55 percent of Egypt's people live in rural areas and farm small plots
Cairo, Egypt's capital, is the largest city in Africa and a leading center
of the Muslim world.
One of the ancient world's most advanced civilizations developed in the
Nile River valley.
Today Egypt is a republic. Almost 90 percent of Egyptians are Muslims and
about 10 percent are Christians.
Other North African Countries
North Africa also includes the countries of Lybia, Tunisia, Algeria, and
Morocco. The people of all four countries are of mixed Arab and Berber
The landscape of North Africa is mostly desert or mountains.
The region's people live on fertile coastal plains or near oases.
Oil, natural gas, and phosphate rock are among the most important natural
resources of North Africa.
All countries of the region border on the Mediterranean Sea or Atlantic
Ocean. This affects climate.