Plan of Study
Compare the geographic features
of Spain and Portugal.
Summarize the physical features and cultural contributions of Italy.
Outline the physical geography and cultural contributions of Greece.
Chapter 12: Southern Europe
Spain, Portugal, and Andorra make up the Iberian Peninsula. People there
enjoy a Mediterranean climate with mild winters and hot summers. Although
agriculture is still important to Spain and Portugal, most people now work
in manufacturing and service industries. Spain has several distinct cultural
regions, each with its own language or dialect.
The Italian peninsula is shaped like a boot. It extends out from Southern
Europe into the center of the Mediterranean Sea. The Po River valley, in
the north, is Italy's main agricultural region and its principal industrial
center. The capital city of Rome was once the heart of the Roman Empire.
In the 1300s the Renaissance began in Italy.
The mainland of Greece sits on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula.
Another peninsula, the Peloponnesus, extends from the mainland farther
south into the Mediterranean Sea. There are also 2,000 islands surrounding
the mainland. Shipping and tourism are vital to Greece's economy. Ancient
Greece laid the foundation for western civilization.
Spain and Portugal
Spain's dry central highland slopes down to fertile coastal lowlands. Mountains
rise on its northern and southern coasts.
Both Spain and Portugal have a mostly Mediterranean climate.
Spain & Portugal has developed
an industrial economy.
Portugal is more culturally uniform than Spain, which has several distinct
Italy's major landform is the Apennine mountain chain that runs through
the center of the Italian Peninsula.
Fertile soil, a mild climate, and hydroelectric power help make northern
Italy a productive region.
The ancient Romans made important contributions to Western civilization
in language, government, and architecture.
Rome, Italy's capital, encompasses Vatican City, the world's smallest nation
and headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church.
Greece consists of a mountainous mainland and nearly 2000 offshore islands.
The Mediterranean climate found throughout Greece varies only slightly
with changes in elevation.
The Greek economy relies on tourism and shipping.
Ancient Greece laid the foundations of Western science, art, philosophy,
government, and drama.